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On September 6th, Zhongqingbao stated on the official WeChat that it would create a simulated business game "Master Brew" that can map the innechainlink price newsr world of players to the meta universe. On September 8, Tom Cat’s Secretary-General stated on the investor relations platform that the company is firmly optimistic about the development direction of Metaverse and has established a special working group for the direction of Metaverse.

The proportion of team control is relatively hisolana defi appsgh, and most of them have not set strict token unlocking conditions, and the long-term binding of team interests and projects is insufficientThe tokens of the liquid mining part are released too fast, which may cause the project to lack sufficient subsidy budget after one year, which is not conducive to the long-term development of the project

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Token value captureCore function: revenue accelerationUp to now, the main function of QBT is to obtain qScore after lock-up. Through qScore, deposit users can accelerate their deposit income (from the increase in QBT deposit subsidies).This mechanism is similar to Curve's Locker mechanism. Curve's Locker function and economic model consolidate its original competitive advantage and increase the switching cost of liquidity providers and investors. It is a very eye-catching design. However, when the mechanism is applied to a loan agreement, will it still have a good effect? The author remains skeptical about this.First of all, the reason why some people are willing to lock up the position of Curve's token CRV for a long time after buying it is caused by Curve's strong position in the stable asset business chain and the competition for the governance power of Curve by multiple participants. Because governance power on the Curve platform means two core resources: the baton of liquidity and the accelerator of revenue.

Since the issuer of stable consideration assets (stable currency, stETH and other pledge certificates and BTC cross-chain assets such as renBTC are all stable consideration assets), they have great requirements on the stability and transaction depth of their operating assets, so they choose Curve to list. Assets and attracting market-making liquidity are very rigid requirements, which creates a strong position of Curve relative to asset operators, which is determined by the business positioning of its Top1 stable asset exchange platform.In terms of the expansion of asset lending scenarios, the demand from asset operators is far less strong, which has led to a large number of less demanders of Qubit governance rights, and the overall lock-up willingness is difficult to reach the level of Curve.Its co-founder is Danny Chong. Danny Chong has more than 16 years of banking experience. He was responsible for Crédit Agricole CIB's foreign exchange and fixed-rate product (FX & Rates) sales SEA department.

On September 1, the public beta version of Arbitrum, the general expansion network of Ethereum, was officially launched. At the beginning of the launch, it was sought after by many DeFi blue chip applications such as Uniswap, Sushiswap, and Curve. In less than two weeks, the amount of funds locked up reached 2.2 billion. The US dollar has surpassed the public chains of Fantom, Heco, Near, etc., and is close to the current two-tier leader polygon.The launch of Arbitrum has become a milestone in the history of Layer 2 development, and it has been praised by many as "finally there is a "true second layer"." The second layer network, or Layer 2 as we often say, generally refers to the second layer of Ethereum. Their operating logic is simply: to reduce the data processing on the main chain by performing calculations or storage outside the main chain , So as to achieve the purpose of expanding performance, but still relying on the status of the main chain security.In fact, in the early days of Bitcoin, Layer 2 was already a topic that attracted much attention. At that time, Layer 2 was mainly used to solve the payment expansion of Bitcoin. It proposed a side chain solution including state channels and Liquid, RSK, etc. plan.After entering the era of Ethereum, in addition to the sidechain and state channel solutions that have already appeared, a new expansion plan appeared-Plasma, which was the protagonist of the early Ethereum expansion plan, but later, due to the Plasma plan Security issues, as well as the emergence of the Rollup solution and the maturity of the zero-knowledge proof technology, the Plasma solution was gradually abandoned, and the research direction turned to the current mainstream Rollup solution.

The so-called Rollup here refers to the collection of multiple transactions under the chain, compressed into a transaction, and then sent to the main network, so as to achieve the effect of saving transaction costs and reducing the amount of interaction. How to ensure the security and authenticity of the data under the Rollup chain, based on the different proof mechanisms, gave birth to two mainstream expansion solutions that we are familiar with-ZK Rollp (zero-knowledge proof) and Optimistic Rollup (fraud proof). Each has its own advantages and disadvantages in performance. As we will introduce later, the Arbitrum launched this time is the latter (subtle differences).Because the era of Ethereum sharding is in the foreseeable future, Layer 2 has always been regarded as the best solution to relay the Ethereum ecology. "The current L2 is approximately equivalent to the state of July to August last year." This is Shenyu's current Layer 2 Judgement of the track.

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At present, Layer 2 is divided from the width of the application. It can be divided into two categories, general-purpose and vertical. For example, Loopring, dYdX, Synthetix are all vertical applications, and general-purpose ones include Arbitrum, zkSync, etc. It is equivalent to the "Layer 2 public chain". If there is a Layer 2 overlord in the future, then there is a high probability that it will also come out of this field.As a track that has just begun to rise, Layer 2 has high hopes from many people. Some people think that it will start a new round of "DeFi Summer", and some people think that it will give birth to a Layer 2 comparable to Ethereum. So who has it? This potential? What are the Layer 2 general-purpose projects worthy of our attention?At present, the zkSync network only supports the transfer function, and the supported currencies are relatively limited. It only supports dozens of mainstream currencies such as UNI, DAI, USDC, etc. As the ZK Rollup solution has relatively large technical difficulties in compatible EVM, it must be implemented Like Arbitrum's current features, it is not yet realistic. At the end of last month, the official also postponed the launch of the testnet zkSync2.0 (EVM version) and gradually opened the testnet in three phases, precisely for this reason.The interesting point is: in zkSync network payment gas, you can use other tokens instead, you don’t need to have ETH, for example: in Gitcoin donation, if you donate with DAI in zkSync network, you can directly use DAI as Gas fee, for those tokens that do not have a liquid market price, the fee can also be paid with other tokens.

In the zkSync network, transaction costs are mainly divided into two parts: the off-chain part and the on-chain part. The off-chain part is the calculation cost of state storage and zero-knowledge proof generation, which is fixed, and the official estimate is about 0.001 US dollars per transfer. The on-chain part is that the verifier must pay Ethereum gas to verify the zero-knowledge proof. The cost is mainly based on the gas price of the Ethereum main network, but this is several orders of magnitude cheaper than the normal ETH/ERC20 transfer cost.Proof mechanism: zero-knowledge proofAdvantages of zkSync: Every transaction data is stored on the main chain, which is more secure; it is faster to exit the second-tier network (ideally a few minutes, but the actual measurement takes about 2-3 hours).zkSync challenges: generating zero-knowledge proofs requires a lot of computing resources, and the hardware threshold for zkSync verifiers is relatively high; it is difficult to implement general smart contract functions (this is a problem that all adopters of ZK Rollup solutions currently face).

Optimism EthereumOptimism Ethereum uses the Optimistic Rollup expansion plan. On January 15 this year, the Optimism team started the trial operation of the mainnet.

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The Optimism team hopes to establish instant transactions and scalable smart contracts on Ethereum. The team has created an EVM-compatible solution OVM on Layer 2. Optimism is a scaling solution with a complete cross-layer migration function.At present, only projects that apply for the whitelist can be deployed on the Optimistic Ethereum mainnet. There are not many projects that have been built on Optimism, mainly including cross-chain bridge Optimism Gateway, Hop.Exchange, Celer bridge; DEX platforms uniswap, Kwenta, Rubicon, 1 inch; and 13 applications including option trading platform Lyra and Synthtix.

Projects that have been built in OptimismThe official said before that "the conditions for completely removing the whitelist are not yet available, and a major upgrade is planned in the next three months." On September 13th, Optimism announced that it would double the throughput limit of the main network to handle up to 200,000 transactions per day.When using the Optimism network, the following two points are completely different from Ethereum. You must be clear:First: The transaction is processed according to the first-in-first-out principle, so increasing the gas price will not affect the execution speed of the transaction.Second: Currently, Optimism uses gas limit to encode information about transactions executed on L2 and on L1 post transaction cost information, so do not try to modify the gas limit automatically provided by the application, otherwise your transaction may be rejected.Proof mechanism: fraud proof

Optimism advantage: Data is stored on the main chain, and it is easier to support general smart contract technology.Optimism challenge: The exit period of the second layer is long (7 days). This is also a problem faced by all Layer 2 solutions that use fraud proof mechanisms. The overall security is slightly lower than that of the main chain and ZK solutions.

Arbitrum was originally an academic project at Princeton University, established by the team Offchain Labs.Arbitrum's proof mechanism is similar to Optimism above. The difference is mainly reflected in the difference in the data uploaded to the main chain. In the process of processing, when someone thinks that the second-level data is in dispute, they can pay a deposit and submit a proof. At this time, the contract will arbitrate it. In the Optimistic Rollup scheme, a complete contract will be simulated and executed on the main chain. Calling consumes high costs; in the Arbitrum Rollup scheme, firstly, through multiple rounds of interactions at the second layer, the dispute scope is reduced before being simulated on the main chain, the number of interactions is reduced, and the cost of dispute resolution on the chain is reduced. This is the biggest difference between the two schemes.

In May of this year, Arbitrum was opened to developers for the first time. On September 1st, the public beta was launched, and the whitelist mechanism was also offline. Similar to Optimism, Arbitrum currently has a clear limit on the upper limit of network processing capacity (80,000 arbgas/s), which roughly matches the current capacity of Ethereum L1, but Arbitrum also stated that as the system becomes stable, the speed limit will be gradually increased in the future. , And continue to improve performance.It is also this limitation. At present, the gas fee of Arbitrum is not very low, which is criticized by everyone, especially when a large number of transactions are influx and reach the upper limit of network capacity, then the cost of L2 will rise further, but compared to the main chain That said, the cost can still be reduced by dozens of times.

Comparison of handling fees for Layer 2 transfer of ETH Data source: l2feesIt is undeniable that Arbitrum has fired the first shot of Layer 2 ecological development, but at present, Arbitrum is flooded with too many native dog projects, and everyone must pay attention to risks.Proof mechanism: fraud proofArbitrum advantages: Data is stored on the main chain, and it is easier to be compatible with EVM; the traditional Optimistic Rollup solution is optimized, which can further reduce costs.

Arbitrum challenge: The exit period of the second layer is longer (7 days), and the overall security is slightly lower than that of the main chain and ZK solutions.StarkNet is a Layer 2 expansion general platform led by StarkWare. It is similar in type to the zkSync we mentioned above, and the difference is mainly reflected in two different zero-knowledge proofs.

zkSync uses zk-SNARKs; StarkNet uses zk-STARKs. For space reasons, the details of the two technologies will not be discussed. We only need to know the final difference: zk-SNARKs on-chain storage space and gas consumption Both are smaller, but zk-STARKs are better in terms of safety.In January of this year, StarkWare announced the roadmap for the development of StarkNet. The team will complete the final Layer 2 ecological deployment (planet, constellation, and universe) in three stages, gradually transition from single-application Rollups to multi-application Rollups, and finally realize the entire governance DAOization.

StarkNet roadmap plans to complete the aggregation of multiple applications before the end of the yearBut currently, StarkNet is still in the testing phase. On September 1, StarkNet released the Alpha 2 test version, which supports the interaction between smart contracts for the first time. It is reported that the team is currently preparing for the release of the StarkNet Alpha mainnet, which will be approved by then Online application in the form of whitelist.

In fact, in addition to the StarkNet mentioned above, Starkware has also proposed another expansion solution, StarkEx (Validium). Currently, there are not many applications that use the StarkEx solution. They are the following four: DeversiFi, dYdX, ImmutableX and Sorare.Although StarkEx also belongs to ZK Rollup, not all data is uploaded to the main chain at the first level. Therefore, theoretically, it can have higher scalability and processing speed. It is precisely for this reason that compared to other Rollup solutions, StarkEx network Data availability and security risks are higher.Proof mechanism: zero-knowledge proofStarkNet advantage: Data is stored on the main chain, which is more secure than other ZK expansion solutions.

StarkNet Challenge: EVM compatible technology is more difficult, and the gas fee is slightly higher than zkSync.Polygon used to be called Matic Network, and the technology used in its L2 chain is plasma.

Plasma essentially belongs to the category of side chains. First, create a smart contract on Ethereum as a connection between the Ethereum main network and plasma sub-chain. This plasma sub-chain can even be a private chain, and data calculation and processing are both In the plasma sub-chain, the executors of layer 2 only need to periodically submit a "state commitment" to the main chain to ensure the credibility of the data off the chain. The security of this scheme is relatively low, so it is basically used by many mainstream research institutions. Abandoned.For example, the OMG Foundation, which previously focused on plasma, also proposed a new expansion research plan this year-Boba network, and what Boba uses is Optimistic in the Rollup plan.

In view of the awkward position of Polygon, many people regard the current Polygon as a pseudo two-layer, but Polygon positions itself as a Layer 2 solution aggregator, which to a certain extent has found another development path for Polygon. Moreover, Polygon has also acquired the ZK Rollup expansion network Hermez launched by iden3, which reduces the doubts about the pseudo-second layer to a certain extent.Proof mechanism: fraud proof

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster