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The latest incident comes amid the increasing number of exploits targeting the Avalanche, a DeFi-focuschainlink news todayed blockchain protocol launched in September 2020. Last week, the Avalanche-based DeFi application Zabu Finance was reportedly exploited for $3.2 million, causing the value of Zabu tokens plummet to zero.

Note that a bitcoin exchange is different from a bitcoin wallet. While the former offers a platform through which bitcoin buyersbittorrent coin going down and sellers can transact with each other, the latter is simply a digital storage service for bitcoin holders to store their coins securely. To be more technical, bitcoin wallets store private keys which are used to authorize transactions and access the bitcoin address of a user. Most bitcoin exchanges provide bitcoin wallets for their users, but may charge a fee for this service.Makers and Takers

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Online bitcoin marketplaces usually designate bitcoin participants as either makers or takers. When a buyer or seller places a limit order, the exchange adds it to its order book until the price is matched by another trader on the opposite end of the transaction. When the price is matched, the buyer or seller who set the limit price is referred to as a maker. A taker is a trader who places a market order that immediately gets filled.Example of a Bitcoin ExchangeFor example, on a bitcoin exchange, three coin sellers are asking for BTC/USD 2265.75, BTC/USD 2269.55, and BTC/USD 2270.00. A trader who initiates a market order to buy bitcoins will have their order filled at the best ask price of 2265.75. If only five bitcoins are available for the best ask and 10 coins are available for 2269.55, and the trader wants to buy 10 at market price, the trader's order will be filled with 5 coins @ 2265.75 and the remaining 5 @ 2269.55.However, a trader who thinks they can get bitcoins for a better price could set a limit order for, say, 2260.10. If a seller matches their ask price with this order or sets a price below this figure, the order will get filled. All of this is done by the exchange, which takes a percentage of each transaction for their business.Bengaluru | Mumbai: Andreessen Horowitz is in talks to invest in CoinSwitch Kuber, a cryptocurrency platform for retail traders, people familiar with the matter said. If the deal goes through it will be the first bet by a16z—as the Silicon Valley venture capital firm is popularly known—in an Indian startup, sources told ET.

“The deal is likely to be completed soon and could be made official later this month,” one of the people cited above said.The capital infusion from a16z will be part of CoinSwitch Kuber’s new funding round, which will push its valuation to just under $2 billion, the sources said, making it a unicorn—startups with a valuation of $1 billion or more. Singapore-based CoinSwitch’s previous fundraise was in April when it raised $25 million from Tiger Global at a valuation of $500 million. That was the New York-based investment firm’s maiden investment in a crypto platform in India.To try and mimic this process in younger trees, Ancients of the Future is growing heart-rot fungi on blocks of wood in the lab, inserting the blocks into holes cut in young trees and recovering them with bark. They are left that way for a few years, then the blocks are removed to see if the fungi have taken hold inside the tree.

The project is not the first to try this technique – fungi inoculation has been trialled before in North America where researchers found that fungal inoculation could reduce decay time from 100 years to just three when used in combination with traditional methods.Boddy explains why this new method of veteranisation may work better than previous methods: "We’re putting the fungi we want where we want it, rather than just hoping it turns up."She explains that the hollowing of ancient trees by fungal decay, previously seen as detrimental, is a natural part of the ageing process and can even prolong the lives of trees, feeding them nutrients from the inside.Boddy's team has been using a new, minimally damaging DNA sampling technique to analyse the inoculated wood. It means the researchers are able to take a much smaller sample from the tree and get much more detailed information.

"Fungi are all around us," says Boddy. "Inside every tree trunk, every leaf, every stem, every bit of plant that’s decaying on the floor, in the soil beneath our feet. But we can’t see them which makes studying them very difficult. Now that we can extract DNA we can see exactly what’s there."Boddy is optimistic that fungal inoculation could help speed up the ageing process, and that it's possible to bridge the gap between the ancient trees of today and those of the future. But it’s still too soon to tell. Variables such as tree and fungus species, and climate change will have an impact. And we still know very little about heart-rot – how fungi get inside a tree in the first place, how their communities change over time or how that affects decay.

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These efforts are also a temporary fix. So, what can we do differently to ensure we never see a generational gap like this again? The Ancient Tree Forum offers land owners advice on how to care for their ancient trees – putting up barriers to protect them from livestock, clearing nearby vegetation that is competing for light, creating a root protection zone and propping up heavy limbs or bracing ageing trunks.The Woodland Trust calls for full legal protection for all ancient trees to prevent further loss, and enforcement of government urban development policies that prevent encroachment on ancient woodlands. Such woodlands could be identified through inventories and more research done into the buffers necessary to protect ancient woodlands from nearby development sites.In the context of the global biodiversity crisis, with many species in sharp decline, the intricate worlds inside ancient trees might seem like a small piece of the puzzle. But without the unique habitats provided by ancient trees, the health of the wider forest ecosystem – from fungi to butterflies – could be compromised."We need to think beyond our own lifetimes and look after the trees we’ve got now, to give them a chance to grow into ancients," says Rutter. "Trees are fragile, complex chemical factories and major hubs for biodiversity. Without them, many species won’t survive."

--The emissions from travel it took to report this story were 4.8kg CO2, travelling by car. The digital emissions from this story are an estimated 1.2g to 3.6g CO2 per page view. Find out more about how we calculated this figure here.Aaron Jones honoured his late father by scoring four touchdowns as the Green Bay Packers beat the Detroit Lions.Last season's Most Valuable Player Aaron Rodgers threw for four touchdowns as Green Bay fought back to win 35-17.

The government is poised to step in to tackle the gas price crisis and carbon dioxide shortage, Business Secretary Kwasi Kwarteng has said.The move comes as rising wholesale gas costs are forcing smaller providers out of business.

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Mr Kwarteng told the BBC that lending money to bigger firms to help them take on stranded customers was an option.He also said the government could subsidise the country's biggest carbon dioxide producer to bolster supplies.

The firm, CF Industries, has halted production at two UK plants because rising gas costs, caused by higher demand due to cold weather in Europe and Asia, have made them unviable.Carbon dioxide is essential to the frozen food industry and the shortage has raised fears of more gaps in grocery supplies.Mr Kwarteng said he had spoken twice to CF Industries' chief executive and was looking at ways to ensure production would resume "as quickly as possible", including subsidies.However, he ruled out nationalising the company, saying he was "averse" to the idea.Mr Kwarteng denied that failed energy companies would get government bailouts, saying: "I do not think it's the right thing for taxpayers' money to be injected into companies that have been badly run."However, he said the government was exploring the possibility of lending money to bigger energy firms to help them absorb the cost of taking on new customers from companies that had gone bust.

"If we do have this policy, they will be expected to pay back the loans," he added.Limits on how much energy firms charge customers will stay, the government and the energy regulator have said, despite the price of wholesale gas reaching record highs.

On Monday, Mr Kwarteng and energy regulator Ofgem dismissed suggestions that the cap on energy prices would be lifted, saying that keeping it was the "clear and agreed position".Customers on some tariffs are protected from sudden hikes in wholesale gas prices through the energy price cap.

This limits how much firms can charge per unit of gas.The price cap covers 15 million households across England, Wales and Scotland.

Customers will still continue to receive gas or electricity even if the energy supplier goes bust. Ofgem will move your account to a new supplier, but it may take a few weeks. Your new supplier should then contact you to explain what is happening with your accountWhile you wait to hear from your new supplier: check your current balance and - if possible - download any bills; take a photo of your meter readingIf you pay by direct debit, there is no need to cancel it straight away, Citizens Advice says. Wait until your new account is set up before you cancel itIf you are in credit, your money is protected and you'll be paid back. If you were in debt to the old supplier, you'll still have to pay the money back to your new supplier instead

On Monday, Mr Kwarteng dismissed fears of energy shortages, saying: "There is absolutely no question of the lights going out or people being unable to heat their homes."However, the price cap means firms are unable to pass on higher wholesale costs, which is forcing some - mostly smaller companies - to go out of business.

The boss of one small firm, Utilita, told the BBC that it was not taking on any new customers because it could not afford to buy enough extra gas to supply them.Utilita chief executive Bill Bullen said that for every 1,000 new customers the firm attracted, it would have to take on £250,000 in additional costs per week.

He said the government would end up spending billions of pounds on the crisis.This money "would have been better spent on getting customers to reduce their energy consumption", he added.

If an energy firm collapses, customers are automatically switched to a tariff provided by the new supplier. This is a tariff agreed with the regulator Ofgem, but it may well be more expensive than the deal they had with the former company which went bust.What is the energy price cap?The energy cap is the maximum price suppliers in England, Wales and Scotland can charge customers on a standard - or default - tariffOfgem sets the cap level for summer and winter based on the underlying costs to supply energy

Energy bills are already due to rise by an average of £139 a year in October, but the price cap restricts further price hikes over winterThe current price cap is £1,138 a year for standard tariffs, but will rise to £1,277 in October

Presentational grey lineThe cost of the wholesale price surge is partly being covered by a 12% rise in the energy price cap next month - the maximum price suppliers are allowed to charge customers on a standard tariff.

The energy price cap was introduced in January 2019 and is reviewed twice a year.It applies only to standard variable or default tariffs. These types of tariff are typically the most expensive plan that a supplier offers.

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster